Words order of the simple sentence
The Turkic languages have the structure where a dependent (subordinate) member of the sentence goes before the main member called a predicate. Only vocative goes after the verb, because vocative is not a part of the sentence. Subordinate members of the sentence are the attribute, the object, the adverbial modifiers of place or time. For instance, мен школго келдим (I came to school), here ШКОЛГО is the adverbial modifiers of place, КЕЛДИМ is the predicate. Эртен мен эрте келерим (tomorrow I’ll come early). Here ЭРТЕ (early) is the adverbial modifiers of time, КЕЛЕРИМ is the predicate. ЭРТЕН (tomorrow) is an adverb of time, МЕН (I) is the subject.
The vocative can be placed at the beginning, as well as in the middle or at the end of the sentence, for example:
Айана, эжикти ач – Aiana, open the door.
Эжикти ач, Айана – open the door, Aiana.
Ач, Айана, эжикти – Aiana, open the door.
The subject can be placed any position in a sentence, but never goes after the predicate (usually it’s a verb). The adverbial modifiers of place or time usually take position at the beginning of the sentence. It’s not a huge deal if you change the place of a word, the meaning will not change anyway.
A predicate is the main member of the sentence and answers the question What does the subject do? It is related to the subject. In the altai language the predicate also answers the questions What is the subject like? Who is the subject?
Usually the predicate is a verb, but also it can be a noun or an adjective. For example, мениҥ өјем – качы (my sister is a teacher). Here КАЧЫ (teacher) is a predicate expressed by a noun. Кыс јараш (the girl is beautiful). Here the predicate is expressed by an adjective ЈАРАШ. Олор меге болушкан (they helped me), here the predicate is a verb БОЛУШКАН.
Please , do this small task on translation.
Мен – эмчи. Мен кече ишке бардым. Эртен база эмчиликке барарым. Анда мен оору улуска болужарым.
Vocabulary: мен (I), эмчи (doctor), кече (yesterday), эртен (tomorrow), ишке ( to the work), иш (work), бардым (went), барадым ( I go), барарым (I will go), анда (there), оору улус (patiens), болужар (to help), болужарым (I ‘ll help), болужадым (I help).