Сomplex verb in Altai language is a combination of the main verb and auxiliary verb.

Олор мени cакып јатthey are waiting for me

In Altai language we use an auxiliary verb after the main verb. As part of the complex verb the main verb has the same form as participle imperfective.
The participle imperfective answers the question (DOING WHAT?) Cакып (waiting), келип (coming), барып (going) is a participle.
In the complex verbs only the second part – the auxiliary verb can change its tense, aspect of perfection, to be plural or singular, and have personal affixes. The main verb provides the main meaning. The main verb is formed by adding affixes –ып, -уп, -ип, -ӱп, -п to the base of the verb, look at examples: кычырыпreading, угупlistening, сакыпwaiting, берипgiving, тоолопcounting, ойнопplaying, кӧрупseeing, јартапexplaining, etc.
The complex verb is used more often than the simple one. The simple verb is widely used in poetry and songs.

The auxiliary verbs ЈАТ, ТУРУ, ОТУРЫ, ЈӰРӰ indicate the duration and permanency of action and state: оройтып јатis late (now), оройтып туру(always) is late, иштеп јатhe is working (now), иштеп туруhe (always) works, отоп јӱрӱ(he) is grazing now (the cattle), ӱренип јатhe is studying now, ӱренип туруshe goes to school (university). Here all the auxiliary verbs are given for the third person singular (he/she)
By the way, the verb Ӱрен has two meanings – 1.study and 2. learn, бу ӱлгерди ӱренlearn this poem, школдо јакшы ӱренperform well at school.

The auxiliaries ЈАТ and ТУРУ can be used with every action verb. Moreover, they themselves can make complex verbs: јадып туруhe lives/dwells (refers only to a person, not an animal). Tуруп јат1.he stands/is standind; 2.he gets up/is getting up.
Бичип јатhe is wrighting at the moment, бичип туруshe writes (often), келип јатhe is coming (now), келип туруhe comes.

The auxiliary verb ОТУРЫ (seats) usually is used when a person does an action when seated: ажанып отурыhe/she is eating, ыйлап отурыhe/she is weeping, кычырып отурыhe/she is reading. When you see that somebody is doing something and see how he is doing it you surely can use the auxiliary verb ОТУРЫ: акам самара бичип отурыmy elder brother is writing a letter, Айдар таҥкылап отурыAidar is smoking.

ЈАДЫРЫ is used in case you see somebody is doing an action in lying position, for example: Арина телевизор кӧрӱп јадырыArina is watching TV (lying in a sofa).
Notice! The auxiliary verb ЈАДЫРЫ is formed from the verb ЈАДАРto lie down. This verb can be as both main and auxiliary verb: ол оорып јадырыhe is being ill, ӧлӱп јадырыhe is dying, калаш столдо јадырыbread is on the table, Айана Англияда јадырыAiana lives in England.

The auxiliary verb ЈӰРӰ is used in cases when the subject sojourns somewhere, or dwells, visits some place. This is formed from verb ЈӰРЕРto live/to sojourn. It also shows the permanent repeated action: бичигин кычырып јӱрӱhe reads his book (from time to time or often).
ЈӰРӰ also can function as a main verb and is translated as to live somewhere for some time, for instance: кандый јӱреер?how are you? (here “you” is plural or respectful), кандый јӱрӱҥ?how are you? (here “you” is singular pronoun). Айдар Москвада јӱрӱAidar is seen in Moscow.
In case you mean a person lives somewhere for a long time you should say јадып јат. But this verb refers only to people not to animals, about animals we say only ЈӰРӰП ЈАТ because animals don’t stay in one place for every night. ЈӰРӰП ЈАТ is the complex verb. Айу тайгада јӱрӱп јатbears harbour in taiga, балык суда јӱрӱп јатfish inhabits in rivers.

There are lots of auxiliary verbs in Altai language. You will meet the rest of them next time step by step. They make our language vital, that does not only inform about the action or state but also thoroughly shows the way how and how often one does an action.