Complex verbs in the present tense. Review
Сomplex verb in Altai language is a combination of the main verb and auxiliary verb.
Олор мени cакып јат – they are waiting for me
In Altai language we use an auxiliary verb after the main verb. As part of the complex verb the main verb has the same form as participle imperfective.
The participle imperfective answers the question (DOING WHAT?) Cакып (waiting), келип (coming), барып (going) is a participle.
In the complex verbs only the second part – the auxiliary verb can change its tense, aspect of perfection, to be plural or singular, and have personal affixes. The main verb provides the main meaning. The main verb is formed by adding affixes –ып, -уп, -ип, -ӱп, -п to the base of the verb, look at examples: кычырып – reading, угуп – listening, сакып – waiting, берип – giving, тоолоп – counting, ойноп – playing, кӧруп – seeing, јартап – explaining, etc.
The complex verb is used more often than the simple one. The simple verb is widely used in poetry and songs.
The auxiliary verbs ЈАТ, ТУРУ, ОТУРЫ, ЈӰРӰ indicate the duration and permanency of action and state: оройтып јат – is late (now), оройтып туру – (always) is late, иштеп јат – he is working (now), иштеп туру – he (always) works, отоп јӱрӱ – (he) is grazing now (the cattle), ӱренип јат – he is studying now, ӱренип туру – she goes to school (university). Here all the auxiliary verbs are given for the third person singular (he/she)
By the way, the verb Ӱрен has two meanings – 1.study and 2. learn, бу ӱлгерди ӱрен – learn this poem, школдо јакшы ӱрен – perform well at school.
The auxiliaries ЈАТ and ТУРУ can be used with every action verb. Moreover, they themselves can make complex verbs: јадып туру – he lives/dwells (refers only to a person, not an animal). Tуруп јат – 1.he stands/is standind; 2.he gets up/is getting up.
Бичип јат – he is wrighting at the moment, бичип туру – she writes (often), келип јат – he is coming (now), келип туру – he comes.
The auxiliary verb ОТУРЫ (seats) usually is used when a person does an action when seated: ажанып отуры – he/she is eating, ыйлап отуры – he/she is weeping, кычырып отуры – he/she is reading. When you see that somebody is doing something and see how he is doing it you surely can use the auxiliary verb ОТУРЫ: акам самара бичип отуры – my elder brother is writing a letter, Айдар таҥкылап отуры – Aidar is smoking.
ЈАДЫРЫ is used in case you see somebody is doing an action in lying position, for example: Арина телевизор кӧрӱп јадыры – Arina is watching TV (lying in a sofa).
Notice! The auxiliary verb ЈАДЫРЫ is formed from the verb ЈАДАР – to lie down. This verb can be as both main and auxiliary verb: ол оорып јадыры – he is being ill, ӧлӱп јадыры – he is dying, калаш столдо јадыры – bread is on the table, Айана Англияда јадыры – Aiana lives in England.
The auxiliary verb ЈӰРӰ is used in cases when the subject sojourns somewhere, or dwells, visits some place. This is formed from verb ЈӰРЕР – to live/to sojourn. It also shows the permanent repeated action: бичигин кычырып јӱрӱ – he reads his book (from time to time or often).
ЈӰРӰ also can function as a main verb and is translated as to live somewhere for some time, for instance: кандый јӱреер? – how are you? (here “you” is plural or respectful), кандый јӱрӱҥ? – how are you? (here “you” is singular pronoun). Айдар Москвада јӱрӱ – Aidar is seen in Moscow.
In case you mean a person lives somewhere for a long time you should say јадып јат. But this verb refers only to people not to animals, about animals we say only ЈӰРӰП ЈАТ because animals don’t stay in one place for every night. ЈӰРӰП ЈАТ is the complex verb. Айу тайгада јӱрӱп јат – bears harbour in taiga, балык суда јӱрӱп јат – fish inhabits in rivers.
There are lots of auxiliary verbs in Altai language. You will meet the rest of them next time step by step. They make our language vital, that does not only inform about the action or state but also thoroughly shows the way how and how often one does an action.