Complex verbs in the present tense questions НЕНИ ЭДИП ЈАТ? (what does he do?/what is he doing?) and КАНАЙЫП ЈАТ? (how does he do?/ how is he doing?) This question means “How to be?”, “how to handle a problem” (to agree or not, to take revenge or forgive. To congratulate? To ignore? To respond to?).

The complex verb consists of the main verb and auxiliary verb. The most used auxiliary verbs in Altaian are: ЈАТ, ТУР, ОТУР, ЈӰР. These auxiliary verbs can also function as independent verbs in Imperative singular: ЈАТ1.lie down; 2. dwell in, ТУРstand up/stand, ОТУРsit, ЈӰР1. live; 2. be situated/reside; 3.dwell. Have a look at some more examples: анда турstand there, Москвада јатlive in Moscow, орынга јатlie on the bed, тым отурsit calm, јакшы јӱрget on well.

In present tense the verbs ЈАТ, ТУР, ОТУР, ЈӰР function also as simple verbs: јадырыhe lives/he is resting/is situated, туруhe stands, отурыhe is sitting, јӱрӱhe lives/tracks about/resides.

Examples: калбак столдо јадырыthe spoon is on the table. Mен диванда јадырымI’m lying on the sofa. Олор тышкары туруthey are standing outside. Эјем библиотекада отурыmy elder sister is sitting in the library. Ийт бу јӱрӱthe dog is quartering here.

The verbs ЈӰР, ЈӰРӰ are referred only to living beings: айу тайгада јӱретa bear dwells in taiga.

The verbs ТУРУ, ЈАДЫРЫ are related to both animate creatures and inanimate objects. If an object is situated vertically we say ТУРУ, and about flat-lying object we say ЈАДЫРЫ.
In Altay language the verb ИЛЕР (string/upholster/hang out) is not used in the present, instead of it we say ТУРУ (stands): сениҥ тоныҥ бу туруyour coat is hanging on a peg. Айак столдо туруthe cup is on the table. Јастык јаҥыртыкта јадырыthe pillow is on the plank bed.

Among these verbs ЈАТ is the most widely used.

In order to form a complex verb in the present tense you add affixe –П (-ип, -ып, -уп, -ӱп) to the base of the verb. And you remember that the verb base is similar to the Imperative for singular. Барgo (imperative), барыпgoing ( participle). Барып јатgoes/ is going.

In case the verb base ends with any vowel you add affix –П: бијелеп јатhe dances, кожоҥдоп јатhe sings, сӱӱп јатhe loves, ыйлап јатhe is crying/weeping, oорып јатhe is ill, ӱлеп јатhe devides/portions, уткып јатgreets/welcomes, ӧртӧп јатburns, јууп јатgathers/picks up.

When you see vowels [O, У] add affix –уп: кон+уп → конупpassing the night, кош+упкожупadding, уч+упучупflying, ук+уп → уткуп greeting/welcoming, тут+уп → тудупholding/catching.

And take affix –ӱп after [Ӧ, Ӱ], for example: кӧр+ӱп → кӧрӱпlooking at/seeing, јӱр+ӱп → јӱрӱпliving, јӱс+ӱп → јӱзӱпswimmimg, ӧл+ӱп → ӧлӱпdying, ӧс+ӱп → ӧзӱпgrowing.

We hope also remember that the voiceless consonants turn into its voiced pair: п-б, к-г, с-з, т-д, ш-ж.

In case the verb base has soft vowels [е, и], add affix –ип, as in the examples here: кир+ип → кирипgoing in/coming in, кес+ип → кезипcutting, кел+ип → келипcoming/arriving, кий+ип → кийипputting on/wearing, эт+ип → эдипdoing/making.

And add affix ып, in case you see hard vowels [а, ы] in the verb base: бас+ып → базыпwalking, тын+ып → тыныпbreathing, кас+ып → казыпdigging, чык+ып → чыгыпgoing out.

Тана кийим јунуп јатTana is doing the laundry, јунуп is a participle imperfective, јунуп јат is a complex verb.

And the participle imperfective indicates unaccomplished action. And the participle perfective shows the complete action: угалаhaving heard, эделеhaving done. In Altai language only the participle imperfective is used to form the complex verb in the present: келип јатcomes, алып јатtakes, килеп јатhas compassion on, бичип јатis writing, бичип туруwrites, берип јатgives, берип туруgives.